In geomatics or geospatial science and technology:
Mapping usually refers to map-making and often used instead of cartography. Mapping term is also sometimes used for geospatial data collection (e.g. LIDAR mapping) but in fact it is not mapping because a map is created from some cartographic works (i.e. determining the scale/level of detail and content of map database, entry criteria and symbol specification for geospatial data, layout design etc.). In other words, the acquisition of data with (geographic) coordinates directly from terrain or imagery does not mean mapping but surveying.
A diaspora (from Greek διασπορά, "scattering, dispersion") is "the movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland" or "people dispersed by whatever cause to more than one location", or "people settled far from their ancestral homelands."
Cartography (from Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.
The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:
- Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries.
- Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections.
- Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization.
- Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped. This is also the concern of generalization.
- Orchestrate the elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience. This is the concern of map design.